For centuries, a setting sun has signaled the end of fasting rituals on holidays such as Ramadan and Yom Kippur, a cue to tuck into a delicious meal after a full day of deprivation. But what if the sun’s clockwork were to suddenly change, as it does for astronauts riding aboard the International Space Station, which whips around the Earth at 17,000 miles per hour, giving passengers 16 sunrises and sunsets each day?

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